with steam or water to produce toxic and corrosive vapors.
to prevent contamination to uncontrolled areas.
mist, fog, and foam, CO2. Avoid methods that
will cause splashing or spreading.
· Liquid or vapors can be fatal.
· Clothing releases agent for about 30 minutes after contact
surfaces present long-term contact hazard.
not breathe fumes.
Skin contact must be avoided at all times.
medical attention Immediately.
can cause symptoms in 2-5 minutes.
sequence of symptoms despite the route of exposure:
· runny nose
· tightness of the chest and
· eye pain, dimness of vision
and pin pointing of pupils (miosis)
· difficulty in breathing and
· increased eye symptoms with
· drooling and excessive sweating
· severe nasal congestion
· increased tightness of the
chest and breathing difficulty
· nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
· generalized weakness, twitching
of large muscle groups
· headache, confusion, and drowsiness
· involuntary defecation and
· very copious secretions
· twitching, jerking, staggering
· cessation of breathing, loss of consciousness, coma and death.
breath until respiratory protective mask is donned.
personnel should wear full protective clothing and respiratory
protection during fire-fighting and rescue.
pressure, full face piece, NIOSH-approved self-contained
breathing apparatus (SCBA) will be worn.
· If severe signs, immediately
administer, in rapid succession, all three Nerve Agent
Antidote Kit(s), Mark I injectors (or atropine if directed
by a physician).
· If signs and symptoms are
progressing, use injectors at 5 to 20 minute intervals.
(No more than 3 injections unless directed by medical
· Maintain record of all injections
· Give artificial respiration
if breathing has stopped. Use mouth-to-mouth when mask-bag
or oxygen delivery systems not available. Do not use mouth-to-mouth
if face is contaminated.
· Administer oxygen if breathing
doses can kill in 1-2 hours.
size may range from normal to moderately reduced.
Gloves: Butyl Rubber Glove M3 and M4 Norton, Chemical
Protective Glove Set
primary mode for decontamination of chemical agents is soap and water.
A 0.5% hypochlorite solution can be used. There are differing
guidelines for decontamination and more research is needed
to identify the optimal decontamination method.
See "Personal Decontamination" and "Appendix
D" in Treatment
of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military
Chemical Injuries (from the U.S. Navy Counterproliferation
See also the Medical Management of Chemical Casualties
Handbook (from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute
of Chemical Defense [USAMRICD]) for a general review of
the issues and more on the military decontamination powder