Skip Navigation Links
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
nav image
nav image CDC Home Search Health Topics A-Z
Public Health Emergency Preparedness & Response
Links to Home and Contact Us
Public Health Emergency Preparedness & Response Home Search Contact Us
Department of Health and Human Services
Site Contents
En Español
Public Inquiries
English (888) 246-2675
Español (888) 246-2857
TTY (866) 874-2646
Mon-Fri 8am-11pm EST
Sat-Sun 10am-8pm EST

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd.
Atlanta, GA 30333
USA
(404) 639-3311
FirstGov
Chemical Agents > Soman >
Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders - Nerve Agent: Soman

NERVE AGENT

 

 

CAS # 96-64-0; 50642-24-5
RTECS #
Counter Terrorism Card 0004

SOMAN
GD
thickened GD (TGB)
methylphosphonofluoridic acid 1,2,2-trimethylpropyl ester
Phosphonofluoridic acid, methyl-,1,2,2-trimethylpropyl ester
Pinacolyl methyl phosphonofluoridate
O-Pinalcolyl methylphosphonofluoridate
Chemical Formula C7H16FO2P
Molecular mass: 182.19

 

 

TYPES OF
HAZARD/
EXPOSURE

ACUTE HAZARDS/
SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION

FIRST AID/
FIRE FIGHTING

FIRE

React with steam or water to produce toxic and corrosive vapors.

Contain to prevent contamination to uncontrolled areas.

Water mist, fog, and foam, CO2. Avoid using extinguishing methods that will cause splashing or spreading.

EXPLOSION

Hydrogen may be produced by the corrosive vapors reacting with metals, concrete, etc.

 

 

EXPOSURE

Liquid or vapors can be fatal.

Do not breathe fumes.
Skin contact must be avoided at all times.

Seek medical attention Immediately.

  • INHALATION

Symptoms may occur within minutes or hours, depending upon dose.

Same sequence of symptoms despite the route of exposure:

MILD

runny nose

tightness of the chest and breathing difficulty

eye pain, dimness of vision and pin pointing of pupils (miosis)

difficulty in breathing and cough

MODERATE

increased eye symptoms with blurred vision

drooling and excessive sweating

severe nasal congestion

increased tightness of the chest and breathing difficulty

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and cramps

generalized weakness, twitching of large muscle groups

headache, confusion, and drowsiness

SEVERE

involuntary defecation and urination

very copious secretions

twitching, jerking, staggering and convulsions

cessation of breathing, loss of consciousness, coma and death.

Hold breath until respiratory protective mask is donned.

Fire-fighting personnel should wear full protective clothing and respiratory protection during fire-fighting and rescue.

Positive pressure, full face piece, NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) will be worn.

If severe signs, immediately administer, in rapid succession, all three Nerve Agent Antidote Kit(s), Mark I injectors (or atropine if directed by a physician).

If signs and symptoms are progressing, use injectors at 5 to 20 minute intervals. (No more than 3 injections unless directed by medical personnel.)

Maintain record of all injections given.

Give artificial respiration if breathing has stopped. Use mouth-to-mouth when mask-bag or oxygen delivery systems not available. Do not use mouth-to-mouth if face is contaminated.

Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult.

  • SKIN

See Inhalation

Pupil size may range from nomal to moderately reduced.

Protective Gloves: Butyl Rubber Glove M3 and M4 Norton, Chemical Protective Glove Set

The primary mode for decontamination of chemical agents is soap and water. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution can be used. There are differing guidelines for decontamination and more research is needed to identify the optimal decontamination method.

See "Personal Decontamination" and "Appendix D" in Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries (from the U.S. Navy Counterproliferation Office).

See also the Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook (from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense [USAMRICD]) for a general review of the issues and more on the military decontamination powder approach.

  • EYES

See Inhalation

Very rapid onset of symptoms.

Chemical goggles and face shield.

Immediately flush eyes with water for 10-15 minutes, then don respiratory protective mask.
Symptoms of only miosis does not warrant antidote injection.

  • INGESTION

See Inhalation

Pupil size may range from normal to moderately reduced.

 

Do not induce vomiting. First symptoms are likely to be gastrointestinal. Immediately administer Nerve Agent Antidote Kit, Mark I.

 

DECONTAMINATION

SPILLAGE DISPOSAL

PACKAGING & LABELLING

  • solids, powders and solutions containing various types of bleach (NaOCl or Ca(OCl)2)
  • DS2 (2% NaOH, 70% diethylenetriamine, 28% ethylene glycol monomethyl ether)
  • towelettes moistened with NaOH dissolved in water, phenol, ethanol, and ammonia.

Cover with vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, fine sand, sponges, and paper or cloth towels. Treat with large amounts of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (minimum 10 % by weight). Scoop decontaminated material and place in approved container. After sealing, decontaminate the exterior and label. All leaking containers will be over packed with sorbent (e.g. vermiculite) placed between the interior and exterior containers. Label and dispose according to regulations. Conduct general area monitoring.
If aqueous sodium hydroxide is not available, use following in the order of preference: Decontaminating Agent (DS2), Sodium Carbonate, and Supertropical Bleach Slurry (STB).

Proper Shipping Name: Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s.
DOT Hazard Class: 6.1, Packing Group I, Hazard Zone B
DOT Label: Poison
DOT Marking: Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s. (Pinacolyl methyl phosphonofluoridate) UN 2810, Inhalation Hazard
DOT Placard:

NFPA 704 Signal:

  • Health - 4
  • Flammability - 1
  • Reactivity - 1
  • Special - 0

 

 

 

 

 


I
M
P
O
R
T
A
N
T

D
A
T
A

PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE:
When pure, colorless liquid with a fruity odor. With impurities, amber or dark brown with camphor odor.

PHYSICAL DANGERS:


CHEMICAL DANGERS:
Stable in steel for 3 months at 65C.

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS (OELs):
TLV : 0.00003 mg/m3 (military not ACGIH)

ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:
The substance can be absorbed into the body by all routes.

INHALATION RISK:
Usually liquid in normal state, but will volatilize if heated to form vapor or aerosol.

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:
Soman, an organophosphorus compound, is a lethal cholinesterase inhibitor similar in action to GA (Tabun), although about twice as toxic by inhalation.

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE:
Limited data suggest delayed neuropathy (postural sway, psychomotor performance). Miosis has been noted up to 62 days.

PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES

melting point: -80 to -42C
boiling point: 190-198C
vapor pressure (20C): 0.92mm Hg
density (20C): 1.01g /cm3
volatility: 3900 mg/m3 at 25C
specific gravity: 1.0252 at 25C

aqueous solubility (0C): 34 g /L
Soluble in sulfur mustard, gasoline, alcohols, fats, and oils.
estimated log Kow: 1.78
log Kbenzene-water: 1.61
flashpoint: 121 C (Open Cup Method)
flammability: not available

ENVIRONMENTAL
DATA

Hydrolysis by acidic, neutral, and basic mechanisms, giving fluoride and pinacolyl methylphosphonate.
Rapidly hydrolyzed in basic solutions, e.g., Na2CO3, NaOH, or KOH with a half-life of approximately 1 minute at pH 11 at 25C.
Soman and its hydrolysis products exhibit no significant phototransformations in sunlight.
Soman and its hydrolysis products are thermally stable at temperatures less than 49C.

N O T E S

 

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Trade Names and Other Synonyms:

  • 3,3 dimethyl-n-but-2-yl methylphosphonofluridate
  • 1,2,2-Trimethylpropyl methylphosphonofluoridate
  • Methylpinacolyloxyfluorophosphine oxide
  • Pinacolyloxymethylphosphonyl fluoride
  • Pinacolyl methanefluorophosphonate
  • Methylfluoropinacolylphosphonate
  • Fluoromethylpinacolyloxyphosphine oxide
  • Methylpinacolyloxyphosphonyl fluoride
  • Pinacolyl methylfluorophosphonate
  • 1,2,2-Trimethylpropoxyfluoromethylphosphine oxide
  • EA 1210
  • Zoman
  • PFMP

Styrene-butyl acrylate copolymer is used to thicken GD (TGD) and is not known to be hazardous except in a finely-divided, powder form. The same information above applies to the thickened form except for spills, dissolve TGD in acetone before introducing any decontaminating solution. For skin contact, in addition to donning a respiratory protective mask and immediately removing contaminated clothing, scrape the TGD from the skin surface, then wash with acetone.

 

IMPORTANT NOTICE:

SOMAN (CTC: 0004)    Neither the CDC or NIOSH nor any person acting on behalf of the CDC or NIOSH is responsible for the use which might be made of this information. This card contains the collective views of these agencies and may not reflect in all cases all the detailed requirements in response to a terrorism event on the subject. The user should verify compliance of the cards with the relevant STATE or TERRITORY legislation before use. NIOSH, CDC 2000

 

 

 

 Top of Page


Home | Search | Contact Us

CDC Home | Search CDC | Health Topics A-Z

In general, all information presented in these pages and all items available for download are for public use. However, you may encounter some pages that require a login password and ID. If this is the case, you may assume that information presented and items available for download therein are for your authorized access only and not for redistribution by you unless you are otherwise informed.

Page last modified August 11, 2003

Privacy Policy | Accessibility