NIOSH EMERGENCY RESPONSE CARD

 

NERVE AGENT

SARIN

 


UN #: 2810 (Guide 153)

CAS #: 107-44-8
Alternate CAS#: 50642-23-4

RTECS #: TA8400000

GB
Methylphosphonofluoridic acid, (1-methylethyl) ester
Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate
o-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate
Phosphonofluoridic acid, methyl-, isopropyl ester
Phosphonofluoridic acid, methyl-, 1-methylethyl ester

Chemical Formula: C4H10FO2P

Molecular weight: 140.09
 

TYPES OF
HAZARD/
EXPOSURE

ACUTE HAZARDS/
CLINICAL SIGNS/
SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION/
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

FIRST AID/
FIRE FIGHTING

FIRE

React with steam or water to produce toxic and corrosive gases.

Contain to prevent contamination to uncontrolled areas.

Water, fog, foam, CO2. Avoid methods that cause splashing or spreading.


EXPLOSION

Hydrogen may be produced by the corrosive vapors reacting with metals, concrete, etc.
N/A N/A

ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE

Synopsis:

Lethal cholinesterase inhibitor in liquid or vapor form.

There is only a slight difference between a fatal dose and a dose that produces more mild health effects.

Clothing releases agent for about 30 minutes after contact with vapor.

Contaminated surfaces present long-term contact hazard.

Do not breathe fumes.

Skin contact must be avoided at all times.

Seek medical attention immediately.

(See Decontamination section.)

Triage procedures and medical management guidelines - see ATSDR medical management guidelines for Nerve Agents.

Inhalation:

Symptoms may occur within minutes or hours, depending upon dose.

Same sequence of symptoms despite the route of exposure:

MILD

  • Runny nose
  • Tightness of the chest and breathing difficulty
  • Eye pain, dimness of vision and pin pointing of pupils (miosis)
  • Difficulty in breathing and cough

MODERATE

  • Increased eye symptoms with blurred vision
  • Drooling and excessive sweating
  • Severe nasal congestion
  • Increased tightness of the chest and breathing difficulty
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and cramps
  • Generalized weakness, twitching of large muscle groups
  • Headache, confusion, and drowsiness

SEVERE

  • Involuntary defecation and urination
  • Very copious secretions
  • Twitching, jerking, staggering and convulsions
  • Cessation of breathing, loss of consciousness, coma and death.

Hold breath until respiratory protective mask is donned.

Fire-Fighting personnel should wear full protective clothing and respiratory protection during fire fighting and rescue.

Pressure demand, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (SCBA CBRN, if available) is recommended in response to non-routine emergency situations.

CBRN, Full Facepiece APR (when available) is recommended in non-routine, emergency situation environments less than IDLH but above REL or PEL levels.


For severe signs, immediately administer, in rapid succession, all three Nerve Agent Antidote Kit(s), Mark I injectors (or atropine if directed by a physician).

If signs and symptoms are progressing, use injectors at 5 to 20 minute intervals. (No more than 3 injections unless directed by medical personnel.)

Maintain record of all injections given.

Give artificial respiration if breathing has stopped. Use mouth-to-mouth when mask-bag or oxygen delivery systems not available. Do not use mouth-to-mouth if face is contaminated.

Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult.

Seek medical attention immediately .


Skin:

Very rapid onset of symptoms.

Pupil size may range from normal to moderately reduced.

(See Inhalation for additional symptoms.)


Butyl rubber glove M3 and M4 Norton, Responder® CSM protective clothing.

Don gloves and respiratory protection and then remove contaminated clothing from victim and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. Contaminated clothing can expose rescue workers through direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. (See 'Antidote Administration' in Inhalation.)

(See Decontamination section.)

Seek medical attention immediately.

Eyes:

Very rapid onset of symptoms.

Pupil size may range from normal to moderately reduced.

(See Inhalation for additional symptoms.)

Chemical goggles and face shield.

Immediately flush with large amounts of tepid water for at least 10-15 minutes, then don respiratory protective mask.

Seek medical attention immediately.

When the only symptom is very small or constricted pupils, antidote injection is not warranted.

Ingestion:

First symptoms are likely to be gastrointestinal.

Pupil size may range from normal to moderately reduced.

(See Inhalation for additional symptoms.)

Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating.

Do not induce vomiting. Immediately administer Nerve Agent Antidote Kit, Mark I.

Seek medical attention immediately.

 

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS (OELs):

OSHA PEL: N/A
NIOSH REL: N/A
ACGIH TLV: N/A
TLV : 0.0001 mg/m3 (U.S. Military)
NIOSH IDLH: N/A
1 mg/m3=0.17ppm
(See Acute Exposure Guideline levels below.)

SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS:

NIOSH: N/A

OSHA: N/A


DECONTAMINATION

  • Patient/Victim: Don gloves and respiratory protection and then remove contaminated clothing from victim and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. Contaminated clothes and personal belongings should be placed in a sealed double bag. Decontaminate within 1 or 2 minutes following exposure by washing exposed area thoroughly with soap and water.

    If the hazard is from vapor alone, evacuation of the patient upwind from the exposure source may be sufficient.

      (1) Patients exposed to nerve agent by vapor only should be decontaminated by removing all clothing in a clean air environment and shampooing or rinsing the hair to prevent vapor-off gassing.

      (2) Patients exposed to liquid nerve agent should be decontaminated by –

        a. Washing in warm or hot water at least three times. Use liquid soap (dispose of container after use and replace), large amounts of water, and mild to moderate friction with a single-use sponge or washcloth in the first and second washes. Scrubbing of exposed skin with a brush is discouraged, because skin damage may occur and may increase absorption. The third wash should be to rinse with large amounts of warm or hot water. Shampoo can be used to wash the hair. The rapid physical removal of a chemical agent is essential. If warm or hot water is not available, but cold water is, use cold water. Do not delay decontamination to obtain warm water.

        b. Rinsing the eyes, mucous membranes, or open wounds with sterile saline or water.

      (3) The healthcare provider should –


        a. Check the patient after the three washes to verify adequate decontamination before allowing entry to the medical treatment facility. If the washes were inadequate, repeat the entire process.

        b. Be prepared to administer antidote and or to stabilize conventional injuries during the decontamination process.

        c. Protect the airway while conducting decontamination and assure appropriate placement of the respirator over the uncontaminated face. The initial assessment of the casualty can best be performed in an agent-free environment where the health care provider is able to “look, listen, and feel” unencumbered by protective clothing. However, careful decontamination can be a time consuming process. The health care provider may have to enter the contaminated area to treat the casualty during the process. Medical personnel should wear the proper PPE and evaluate the exposed workers.

    (For further information see ATSDR medical management guidelines for Nerve Agents, SBCCOM Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident (January 2000), and SBCCOM Guidelines for Cold Weather Mass Decontamination During a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident (January 2002)).

  • Equipment: Use 5% solution of common bleach (sodium hypochlorite) or calcium hypochlorite solution (48 ounces per 5 gallons of water) to decontaminate scissors used in clothing removal, clothes and other items.

  • Environment: (See Spillage Disposal.)
  • SPILLAGE DISPOSAL

    Cover with vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, fine sand, sponges, and paper or cloth towels. Treat with large amounts of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (minimum 10 % by weight). Scoop decontaminated material and place in approved container. After sealing, decontaminate the exterior and label. All leaking containers will be over packed with sorbent (e.g. vermiculite) placed between the interior and exterior containers. Label and dispose according to regulations. Conduct general area monitoring.

    If aqueous sodium hydroxide is not available, use following in the order of preference: Sodium Carbonate, and Supertropical Bleach Slurry (STB).

    PACKAGING & LABELLING

     

    UN#: 2810 (Guide 153)
    Proper Shipping Name: Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s.
    Hazard Class: 6.1, Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A.
    Label: Poison.
    Marking: Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s. (Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) UN 2810, Inhalation Hazard
    Placard: Poison
      NFPA 704 Signal:

      Health - 4
      Flammability - 1
      Reactivity - 1
      Special - 0
     

    IMPORTANT DATA

    PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE:
    Colorless liquid. Odorless in pure form.

    PHYSICAL DANGERS:
    Incompatibility with tin, magnesium, cadmium plated steel and some aluminum.
    Some reaction with copper, brass and lead.

    CHEMICAL DANGERS:
    Undergoes hydrolysis by acidic, neutral, and basic mechanisms, all of which give fluoride and isopropyl methylphosphonate as the initial products and forming Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) under acidic conditions and isopropyl alcohol and polymers under basic conditions.

    ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:
    The substance can be absorbed into the body by all routes.

    INHALATION RISK:
    Usually liquid in normal state, but will volatilize if heated to form vapor or aerosol.

    EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:
    Sarin (GB), an organophosphorus compound, is a lethal acetylcholinesterase inhibitor similar in action to Tabun (GA). The aging half-life for Sarin is about 5 hours.

    EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE:
    Limited data suggest delayed neuropathy (postural sway, psychomotor performance). Constricted or pin-point pupils have been noted up to 62 days.

    PHYSICAL
    PROPERTIES

    Melting Point: -68.8°F (-57°C)

    Boiling Point: 316.4°F (158°C)
    Vapor Pressure (20°C): 1.48 mm Hg (2.9 @ 25°C)
    Density (20°C): 1.11 g /cm3
    Volatility: 22,000 mg/m3 at 25°C
    Specific gravity: 1.092 at 25°C aqueous solubility: miscible
    Soluble in organic solvents
    Estimated log Kow: -1.4
    Flashpoint: 78°C (Closed Cup Method)
    Flashpoint: greater than 280°F
    Flammability: not applicable

    ACUTE EXPOSURE
    GUIDELINES (AEGLs)

    (INTERIM)

      10 min 30 min 1hr 4 hr 8 hr
    AEGL 1 (discomfort, non-disabling) - ppm 0.0012 0.00068 0.00048 0.00024 0.00017
    AEGL 2 (irreversible or other serious, long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) - ppm 0.015 0.0085 0.0060 0.0029 0.0022
    AEGL 3 (life-threatening effects or death) - ppm
    0.064 0.032 0.022 0.012 0.0087

    ENVIRONMENTAL
    DATA

    Rapidly hydrolyzed in basic solutions, e.g., Na2CO3, NaOH, or KOH with a half-life of 0.5 minutes at pH 11 at 25°C.

    Sarin and its hydrolysis products exhibit no significant phototransformations in sunlight.

    Sarin and its hydrolysis products are thermally stable at temperatures less than 49°C.

    Sarin is on the Superfund Extremely Dangerous Substances List.

    NOTES

     
     

    ADDITIONAL
    INFORMATION

    Trade Names and Other Synonyms:

    • Isopropyl ester of methylphosphonofluoridic acid
    • Methylisopropoxyfluorophosphine oxide
    • Isopropyl Methylfluorophosphonate
    • O-Isopropyl Methylisopropoxfluorophosphine oxide
    • Methylfluorophosphonic acid, isopropyl ester
    • Isopropoxymethylphosphonyl fluoride
    • Isopropyl methylfluorophosphate
    • Isopropoxymethylphosphoryl fluoride
    • Zarin
     

    GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS

    APR - Air-purifying Respirator
    CBRN -
    Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear
    IDLH -
    Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
    REL -
    Recommended Exposure Limit
    PEL -
    Permissible Exposure Limit
    SCBA - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus

     

    IMPORTANT
    NOTICE:

    SARIN (ERC107-44-8)   The user should verify compliance of the cards with the relevant STATE or TERRITORY legislation before use. NIOSH, CDC 2003