PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Water, fog, foam, CO2,
dry chemical. Avoid methods that cause splashing or
spreading. Fight fire from as far a distance as possible.
Contact with vapor or liquid can be fatal.
Do not breathe fumes.
Skin contact must be avoided at all times.
Seek medical attention
Triage procedures and medical management guidelines
- see ATSDR
medical management guidelines for Blister Agents.
- Delayed effects between 2 and 24 hours after exposure.
- Runny nose.
- Dry/barking cough.
- "Toneless" voice.
- Hemorrhage and necrosis of lung tissue resulting
in coughing up blood.
- Difficulty breathing.
Hold breath until respiratory
protective mask is donned.
Pressure demand, self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA) (SCBA CBRN, if available) is recommended in response
situations to any amount of agent
CBRN, Full Facepiece APR (when available) is recommended
in non-routine, emergency situation environments less
than IDLH but above REL or PEL levels.
Immediately remove from
source of exposure.
If breathing is labored give oxygen.
If breathing has stopped give artificial respiration.
Mouth-to-mouth only when no facial contamination.
Seek medical attention immediately.
Rapid penetration (within
1-2 minutes) without irritation.
Reddening, swelling, and blisters (small to very large)
in 4-24 hours depending on dose.
Warm, moist, thin-skinned areas are the most sensitive
to this agent.
Butyl rubber, neoprene,
nitrile or PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) gloves, Responder®
CSM protective clothing including PVC boots.
Immediately remove contaminated
clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap
and water. Contaminated clothing can expose rescue workers
through direct contact or through off-gassing vapor.
(See Decontamination section.)
Seek medical attention Immediately.
- The eyes are the most sensitive organ and effects
occur between 1-12 hours after exposure.
- Tearing (lacrimation.)
- Light sensitivity.
- Irritation of lining of eye (conjunctiva) and cornea.
- Severe necrosis.
Chemical goggles and
Immediately flush with
large amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes.
Do not cover with bandages. Use dark or opaque goggles.
Seek medical attention Immediately.
Nausea and vomiting common
in first few hours and limited to 24 hours.
(See Inhalation for other symptoms.)
|Do not eat, drink, or smoke
during work. Wash hands before eating.
||Do not induce vomiting. Give
milk to drink.
Seek medical attention Immediately.
EXPOSURE LIMITS (OELs):
OSHA PEL: N/A
NIOSH REL: N/A
ACGIH TLV: N/A
TLV : 0.003 mg/m3 (U.S. Military)
General Population Limit (72 hours) 0.0001 mg/m3
NIOSH IDLH: N/A
(See Acute Exposure Guideline Levels below.)
AND ANALYTICAL METHODS:
Remove clothes and place contaminated clothes and personal
belongings in a sealed double bag. Decontamination of
mustard-exposed victims by either vapor or liquid should
be performed within the first two minutes following
the exposure to prevent tissue damage. If not accomplished
within the first several minutes, decontamination should
still be performed to ensure any residual liquid mustard
is removed from the skin or clothes or to ensure any
trapped mustard vapor is removed with the clothing.
Removing trapped mustard vapor will prevent vapor off-gassing
or subsequent cross-contamination of other emergency
responders/health care providers or the healthcare facility.
Physical removal of the mustard agent, rather than detoxification
or neutralization, is the most important principle in
patient decontamination. Mustard is not detoxified by
water alone and will remain in decontamination effluent
(in dilute concentrations) if hydrolysis has not taken
(1) Patients exposed to vapor should be decontaminated
by removing all clothing in a clean air environment
and shampooing or rinsing the hair to prevent vapor
(2) Patients exposed to liquid should be decontaminated
a. Washing in warm or hot water at least three times.
Use liquid soap (dispose of container after use
and replace), large volumes of water, and mild to
moderate friction with a single-use sponge or washcloth
in the first and second washes. Scrubbing of exposed
skin with a brush is discouraged, because skin damage
may occur which may enhance absorption. The third
wash should be to rinse with large amounts of warm
or hot water. Shampoo can be used to wash the hair.
The rapid physical removal of a chemical agent is
essential. If warm or hot water is not available,
but cold water is, use cold water. Do not delay
decontamination to obtain warm water.
(3) The healthcare provider should –
b. Rinsing the eyes, mucous membranes, or open wounds
with sterile saline or water.
a. Check the casualty after the three washes to
verify adequate decontamination before allowing
entry to the medical treatment facility. If the
washes were inadequate, repeat the entire process.
b. Be prepared to stabilize conventional injuries
during the decontamination process. Careful decontamination
can be a time consuming process. The health care
provider may have to enter the contaminated are
to treat the casualty during this process. Medical
personnel should wear the proper PPE and evaluate
the exposed workers.
(see the following for more information ATSDR
medical management guidelines, SBCCOM
Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During
a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident (January 2000),
Guidelines for Cold Weather Mass Decontamination During
a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident (January 2002)
Equipment: Use 5% solution of common bleach
(sodium hypochlorite) or calcium hypochlorite solution
(48 ounces per 5 gallons of water) to decontaminate
scissors used in clothing removal, clothes and other
Environment: (See Spillage Disposal.)
Common bleach (sodium hypochlorite or NaOCl), superchlorinated
(calcium hypochlorite or Ca(OCl)2) and
chloramine can be used.
|Cover with vermiculite,
diatomaceous earth, clay, or fine sand and neutralized
as soon as possible using large amounts of 5% sodium hypochlorite
solution. Scoop up all material and place in an approved
container. After sealing, decontaminate the exterior and
label. All leaking containers should be packed with sorbent
(e.g. vermiculite) and placed between the interior and
exterior containers. Label and dispose according to regulations.
Conduct general area monitoring.
If sodium hypochlorite solution is not available then
use the following in order of preference: Calcium Hypochlorite
and Super Tropical Bleach Slurry (STB). WARNING: Pure,
undiluted Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH) will burn on contact
with liquid blister agent.
PACKAGING & LABELLING
|UN # 2810
| Proper Shipping
Name: Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s.
|Hazard Class: 6.1, Packing
Group I, Hazard Zone B.
|Marking: Toxic liquids,
n.o.s. Bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide UN 2810, Inhalation
NFPA 704 Signal:
Health - 4
Flammability - 1
Reactivity - 1
Special - 0
Pure liquid is colorless and odorless. Forms yellow
prisms on cooling. Agent grade material is yellow to
dark brown or black and the odor is variously described
as similar to burning garlic, horseradish, a characteristic
sweetish odor, or a weak, sweet, agreeable odor.
Rapidly corrosive to brass at 65 °C. Will corrode
steel at a rate of 0.0001 in. of steel per month at
Stable at ambient temperatures. Decomposition temperature
is 300-351 °F (149-177 °C). Reacts with water
yielding hemi-mustard (a short-lived blister agent),
thiodyglycol, and hydrogen chloride (HCl) with a half-life
of 16 min. (see Environmental). On contact
with acid or acid fumes, it emits highly toxic fumes
of oxides of sulfur and chlorine. When heated to decomposition,
oxides of sulfur and chlorine are emitted.
ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:
The substance can be absorbed into the body by all routes.
Tender skin, mucous membranes and perspiration-covered
skin are more sensitive to the effects.
MUSTARD, a chlorinated sulfur compound, is a blister
agent (vesicant) that causes severe, delayed damage
to the respiratory tract. It is an alkylating agent
that damages the cells within the bone marrow that are
necessary for making blood cells.
EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:
MUSTARD damages the tissues the eyes, skin and respiratory
tract. The skin healing process is very slow. Exposure
to nearly lethal doses can injure the bone marrow, lymph
nodes, and spleen causing a drop in white blood cell
counts and an increased risk for developing infections.
MUSTARD exposure can also cause a cholinergic toxicity:
excessive saliva, tearing, urination, gastrointestinal
cramping and diarrhea, vomiting, small pupils.
EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE:
The rate of detoxification is very slow in the body
and repeated exposures produce cumulative effects including
chronic lung impairment (cough, shortness of breath,
chest pain), cancer of the mouth, throat, respiratory
tract and skin, and leukemia. It may also cause birth
defects. A human carcinogen.
Point: 57.2°F (13-14°C)
|Boiling Point: 419°F-422°
F (215-217°C) (decomposes)
|Vapor Pressure (25°C):
0.11 mm Hg
|Vapor density: 5.4 (Air=1)
|Volatility: 600 mg/m3
|Specific Gravity: 1.27
at 20°C (liquid) 1.34 at 13°C (solid) aqueous
solubility (20°C): 0.8 g/L
|Miscible with the organophosphorus
|Soluble in fats and oils,
gasoline, kerosene, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, alcohol,
tetrachloroethane, ethylbenzoate, and ether.
|Estimated log Kow:
1.37 - 2.41
|Flammability: (can be ignited
by large explosive charges)
can persist for decades in soil or water. When exposed
to sea water, mustard forms a thick outer "crust"
over a core of mustard which allows the mustard to be
brought to the surface where it can injure unsuspecting
fishermen who may snare plastic lumps of mustard gas in
MUSTARD and a number of its hydrolysis products are oxidized
(air, oxygen, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, nitric
acid, potassium permanganate, and chromic acid) to give
the less toxic sulfoxide and sulfone analogs.
MUSTARD and its hydrolysis products do not significantly
degrade in sunlight and are stable at less than 49°C.
|AEGL 1 (discomfort, non-disabling)
|AEGL 2 (irreversible or other
serious, long-lasting effects or impaired ability
to escape) - mg/m3
|AEGL 3 (life-threatening
effects or death) - mg/m3
distilled sulfur mustard which has been purified by washing
and vacuum distillation. H is Levinstein mustard which
contains about 30% sulfur impurities and has a stronger
vesicant action. HT consists of 60% HD and 40% T (a related
vesicant with lower freezing point and much lower volatility),
with reportedly similar characteristics to HD. T is not
expected to constitute an airborne vapor hazard.
Names and Other Synonyms:
- yperite; Y
- Kampfstoff Lost
- Sulphur mustard gas
- Sulfide, bis (2-chloroethyl)
- Beta, beta'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide
- 2,2'dichlorodiethyl sulfide
- Di-2-chloroethyl sulfide Beta, beta'-dichloroethyl
- Iprit S-Lost
- Yellow Cross Liquid
- EA 1033
GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS
- Air-purifying Respirator
CBRN - Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear
IDLH - Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
REL - Recommended Exposure Limit
PEL - Permissible Exposure Limit
SCBA - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
(ERC: 505-60-2) The user should verify compliance
of the cards with the relevant STATE or TERRITORY legislation
before use. NIOSH, CDC 2003.